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著名英語教育專家唐恩眾淺談英語引號的用法
2016-01-30

引號是一個用途比較廣泛的標點符號,多用于表示文中直接引用的部分,有時也用來表示需要著重論述的對象或具有特殊含義的詞語等。在英式英語中,引號通常用單引號,在美式英語中通常用雙引號。本文擬就英語引號的基本用法作一歸納。

1.用于表示引用語的起止,標明直接引語中的所有詞語和標點符號。例如:

If I have seen farther than any man, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.”  (Newton)

He was polite and always gave advice willingly,” she recalled.

There is an English proverb saying "Honesty is the best policy."

1)引用語中的句號和逗號必須置于引號(雙引號和單引號) 之內。例如:

The president,” said that reporter, “is lying.”

At last,” said the old woman, “I can say I am truly happy.”

I’m proud of what I did but I was just doing what I’d been taught,” John said.

We must hope,” he replied wearily, “that things will improve.”

2)冒號與分號通常置于引號外。例如:

Do you agree with what Mary says: “A change is as good as a rest”?

The secretary said to the women on the phone: “Could you hold on for a minutes?”

He told the gunman, “I refuse to do that”; his knees, however, were shaking even as he said those words.

She never liked the poem "Dover Beach"; in fact, it was her least favorite piece of Victorian literature.

3)問號、感嘆號和破折號有時置于引號之內, 有時置于引號之外。如果所引用內容本身是疑問句或感嘆句或帶有破折號, 這些符號一般放在引號之內。否則, 放在引號之外。例如:

Once we have decided the content of teaching, the next question we have to answer is “How should we teach?”

What is the meaning of the title “Theme Parks — Fun and More Than Fun”?

He loves to say “I told you so!” when things go wrong.

The frightened girl screamed, “Help”!

You are quite wrong — she does like you.”

Uncle Wang laughingly answered —“No, no; stay where you are.”

    4)引用猶豫或被打斷的話語,英語中用破折號或用三個點的省略號。例如:

Pass me — I mean, would you mind passing me the salt, please?”

The wind swallowed the reply, and Jukes heard only one word, spoken with great energy “… Always …”

    5)作者提示“某某說//寫”之類的詞語(如he said / smiled / whispered / asked / advised / answered / begged / suggested / decided / shouted / agreed / screamed / thought / wrote / replied, she told me, they complained)放置在中間,用逗號與其兩側的引用語分開,但引用語若有問號或嘆號時則保留原用符號。例如:

Humor,” says Dr. James Birren, noted psychologist, “also leads you to join with other people.”

Tell us,” they said, “of more wonders that you have seen!”

Of course,” he smiled, “which star would you like to go?”

Forgive me,” Einstein wrote, “you found the only way which, in your age, was just about possible for a man of highest thought and creative power.”

No sir,”replied the girl,“I want to go home.”

    6)引語里面的引語宜用逗號隔開。注意當外面一層用單引號時,里面一層用雙引號;外面一層用雙引號時,里面一層用單引號。例如:

When the judge said, “Not guilty”, I could have hugged him.’

I think she said ‘I will try,’ not ‘I won’t try,’” explained Sandy.

The professor said: “Confucius says, ‘Do not impose on others what you do not desire yourself.’ This is a very good principle of moral conduct.”

7)在賓語從句為直接引語的句子里,若全部或部分直接引語位于主句之前,主句常用倒裝(有助動詞時不可倒裝);若作賓語從句的直接引語置于主句之后,主句用正常語序。

Help! Help!” shouted the boy.

I can’t do it,” he had said.

I am sure,” said Jack, “you are right.”

2. 用于標明行文中的對話。一般來說,換一個人說話要另起一個段落,用引號另行標明。例如:

(1) Rebecca: “What! Don’t you love him (Amelia’s brother)?”

Amelia: “Yes, of course, I do.”

(2) A: “The old house belongs to the Greens.”

    B: “There’s nobody living in it now, is there?”

(3) “Were all three people in the car injured in the accident?”

No, it was only the two passengers who got hurt.”

 (4) “How shall I do it?”

Just as you wish.”

3. 用以標明專有名詞,如廣播、電影、電視節目, 歌曲及游戲, 夏令營名稱等,或文藝作品,如雜志、報紙上的文章、短詩、短篇故事,或整部書的某一章節的名稱等。例如:

I was watching “Match of the Day”.

His most exciting invitation was to perform on a TV programme called “Top of the Pops.”

I love “Ode to Ants”; it’s insightful and moving.

In Search of Roots” has helped students like Robert Qian find out about their

homeland.

The Arabian Nights” is a very interesting story-book.

Explain in your own words what the writer means by the title “A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN’T SLEEP”.  

4. 用以引用標明短小的引語或諺語。例如:

When an ant says “ocean”, he’s talking about a small pool.

Why do advertisers often use the “Buy one get one free” message? 

That’s the motto of the Olympics, you know —“Swifter, Higher and Stronger.”

Many people believe that “It is always calm before a storm.”

There is an old saying: “Give a man a fish; you have fed him for today. Teach a man to fish, and you have fed him for a lifetime.”

It pours cats and dogs” means it rains heavily.

The theme of our discussion was “Europe in the 1980’s”.

5. 用以引用需要著重論述的對象,引起讀者對這些特殊詞語或字符的注意。例如:

Use “can’t” to show that you are almost sure something is not true.

Sayings” are fixed phrases or sentences used to make comments, give advice, issue warnings, etc.    

SOS” is a message for help from a ship or aircraft when in danger. 

The idea that the number “13” brings bad luck seems to be quite absurd.

You can put the prefix super- in front of many words to give them the meaning “more than” or “above”.

I’d love to have my own company one day. I can achieve that by having a “winner’s” attitude: I can do this!

    6. 用于表示所引用的詞語具有特殊意義,如術語、比喻義、引申義或俚語等。例如:

When people use words and expressions different from the “standard language”, it is called a dialect.  

The second kind of word is a “homophone”—it’s created by combining letters and symbols to sound like other words.

I have recovered,” said the president, who described his return to health as a “medical miracle”.     

We say a good journalist must have a good “nose” for a story. 

The message it is sending is: “Buy our shoes and you’ll live an exciting life in the ‘fast lane’.”

The author “kills off” her hero in Chapter 7.

7. 用于標示讀者不熟悉或需要強調、引起讀者注意的詞語等。例如:

He realized the “subtlety” of China’s messages, the gap between her hot rhetoric and her cool action.

Haven’t you noticed the “Danger” sign on the sidewalk?

You must always hide medicine from children, and you should tell children to ask their parents before they eat “candy” they find.

Instead of “nice” you can write smart, clean, excellent, exciting, beautiful, wonderful, clever, famous, grand, great, huge, special, unusual,…

Reading is a “passive” activity. To really learn any new language, you need to “use” it actively.

8. 用于標示在擬人、反語或擬聲等修辭格中,帶有褒貶等感情色彩的詞語。例如:

The dog laughed and said, “Don’t deceive me that way.”

I hate packing for a vacation,” said the yellow snail.

How did those “elegantly” dressed young men and ladies look on the bus?   

Born in New Orleans in 1901, Louis was so poor that he often went “shopping” in rubbish bins outside fancy restaurants. 

What’s happened?” he muttered.

以上對引號的常見用法作了簡單的歸納。引號的主要作用就是標示引語或特定稱謂,表示詞語具有特殊含義需要強調或表示否定和諷刺等。標點的正確使用會使文章表達清晰,通順易懂。因此,引號這個用途比較廣泛卻不易把握的小符號,應該引起英語學習者的重視。

 

參考文獻

1. Hornby, A. S.《牛津高階英漢雙解詞典(第七版)》,商務印書館,牛津大學出版社, 2009

2. 徐廣聯《大學英語語法》,華東理工大學出版社,2005

3. 張道真《實用英語語法》,商務印書館,1986

4. 張培基等《英漢翻譯教程》,上海外語教育出版社, 1980

 

唐恩眾(Tonny)老師簡介:

中學一級教師,新疆大學英語專業學士,二十年教齡,長期擔任重點班班主任工作。在《烏魯木齊教育》和《中小學英語教學與研究》發表多篇文章。教學藝術爐火純青,組織教學層次分明,詳略得當,重點突出。對詞匯教學和語法教學及英語中考題型訓練有獨到見解。講課細致、耐心,富有激情而又不失溫情,語言生動形象,具有感染力。贏得了家長學員的一致好評!

 

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